Added: Latoyia Hayman - Date: 30.01.2022 19:49 - Views: 13773 - Clicks: 5904
Kashmir , region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to the northeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east both parts of China , by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, by Pakistan to the west, and by Afghanistan to the northwest.
The region, with a total area of some 85, square miles , square km , has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir , Gilgit , and Baltistan , the last two being part of a single administrative unit called Gilgit-Baltistan formerly Northern Areas.
Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. In addition, China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh the easternmost portion of the region since The Kashmir region is predominantly mountainous, with deep, narrow valleys and high, barren plateaus.
The relatively low-lying Jammu and Punch Poonch plains in the southwest are separated by the thickly forested Himalayan foothills and the Pir Panjal Range of the Lesser Himalayas from the larger, more fertile, and more heavily populated Vale of Kashmir to the north.
The vale, situated at an elevation of about 5, feet 1, metres , constitutes the basin of the upper Jhelum River and contains the city of Srinagar. Jammu and the vale lie in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, while the Punch lowlands are largely in Azad Kashmir. Rising northeast of the vale is the western part of the Great Himalayas , the peaks of which reach elevations of 20, feet 6, metres or higher. Farther to the northeast is the high, mountainous plateau region of Ladakh , which is cut by the rugged valley of the northwestward-flowing Indus River.
Extending roughly northwestward from the Himalayas are the lofty peaks of the Karakoram Range , including K2 Mount Godwin Austen , which at 28, feet 8, metres is the second highest peak in the world, after Mount Everest. The region is located along the northernmost extremity of the Indian-Australian tectonic plate. The subduction of that plate beneath the Eurasian Plate —the process that for roughly 50 million years has been creating the Himalayas—has produced heavy seismic activity in Kashmir.
The climate of the region ranges from subtropical in the southwestern lowlands to alpine throughout the high mountain areas. Precipitation is variable; it is heavier in areas that can be reached by the monsoonal winds west and south of the great ranges and sparse to the north and east where continental conditions prevail. The sparsely inhabited Ladakh region and beyond is home to Tibetan peoples who practice Buddhism and speak Balti and Ladakhi. According to legend , an ascetic named Kashyapa reclaimed the land now comprising Kashmir from a vast lake. That land came to be known as Kashyapamar and, later, Kashmir.
Buddhism was introduced by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century bce , and from the 9th to the 12th century ce the region appears to have achieved considerable prominence as a centre of Hindu culture. A succession of Hindu dynasties ruled Kashmir until , when it came under Muslim rule. The Muslim period lasted nearly five centuries, ending when Kashmir was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab in and then to the Dogra kingdom of Jammu in The state thus formed part of a complex political buffer zone interposed by the British between their Indian empire and the empires of Russia and China to the north.
For Gulab Singh, confirmation of title to these mountain territories marked the culmination of almost a quarter century of campaigning and diplomatic negotiation among the petty hill kingdoms along the northern borderlands of the Sikh empire of the Punjab. Some attempts were made in the 19th century to define the boundaries of the territory, but precise definition was in many cases defeated by the nature of the country and by the existence of huge tracts lacking permanent human settlement.
There were similar doubts about the alignment of the frontier where this northern zone skirted the region known as Aksai Chin , to the east, and ed the better-known and more precisely delineated boundary with Tibet, which had served for centuries as the eastern border of the Ladakh region.
The pattern of boundaries in the northwest became clearer in the last decade of the 19th century, when Britain, in negotiations with Afghanistan and Russia, delimited boundaries in the Pamirs region. At that time Gilgit, always understood to be part of Kashmir, was for strategic reasons constituted as a special agency in under a British agent. Introduction Land and people History The region to The Kashmir problem Attempts at resolution and legitimization Insurgency and counterinsurgency Chinese interests.
Videos Images. Additional Info. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires . External Websites. Full Article. Mountains, Jammu and Kashmir union territory, India. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now.
Raghunath temple complex, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir union territory, India. Palace of the kings of Ladakh centre background in Leh, Ladakh union territory, India. Load Next .K2 and blue still dating
email: [email protected] - phone:(361) 536-2752 x 9506
Blue Mbombo confirms her break up with K2