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Lysergide LSD is a semi-synthetic hallucinogen , and is one of the most potent drugs known. Recreational use became popular between the s to s, but is now less common. It is generally believed that most LSD is produced outside Europe, but secondary preparation of dosage units by dipping or spotting paper squares is more widespread.
These dosage units usually bear coloured des featuring cartoon characters, geometric and abstract motifs. LSD is related to other substituted tryptamines , and is under international control. The R stereoisomer is more potent than the S form.
LSD is normally produced as tartrate salt, which is colourless, odourless and water soluble. Each sheet typically contains or more doses. Solutions of LSD in water or alcohol are occasionally encountered. LSD is light sensitive in solution, but more stable in dosage units.
It was used for research into the chemical origins of mental illness. Physical effects e. Sensory-perceptual changes are the outstanding features of LSD. Visual disturbances are perceived with eyes closed or open and may consist of geometric shapes or figures in patterns. Flashes of intense colour are seen and stable objects may appear to move and dissolve. The perception of time may appear to slow down. The mode of action of LSD is not well understood. It is thought to interact with the serotonin system by binding to and activating 5—hydroxytryptamine subtype 2 receptor 5-HT 2 , which interferes with inhibitory systems resulting in perceptual disturbances.
It is amongst the most potent drugs known, being active at doses from about 20 micrograms. Typical doses are now about 20 to 80 micrograms although in the past, doses as high as micrograms were common. Like other hallucinogens , dependence does not occur. When taken orally, the effects become apparent within about 30 minutes and may continue for 8 to 12 hours or more. The duration and intensity of effects are dose-dependant. The plasma half-life is about two-and-a-half hours.
In humans, LSD is extensively transformed in the liver by hydroxylation and glucuronide conjugation to inactive metabolites. A major metabolite found in urine is 2-oxylysergide. Patients usually recover within a few hours but occasionally hallucinations last up to 48 hours and psychotic states for 3—4 days. Serious side effects often attributed to LSD such as irrational acts leading to suicide or accidental deaths, are extremely rare. Deaths attributed to LSD overdose are virtually unknown. Methods for producing LSD are complex and require an experienced chemist.
Several methods are known, but the majority use lysergic acid as the precursor. Lysergic acid itself is also often produced in clandestine laboratories using ergometrine or ergotamine tartrate as the starting material. Ergotamine occurs naturally in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea , a common parasite on rye. Depending on the method used, other essential reagents include N,N -carbonyldi-imidazole, diethylamine or hydrazine. Absorbent paper doses blotters are prepared by dipping the paper in an aqueous alcoholic solution of the tartrate salt, or by dropping the solution onto individual squares.
LSD is taken orally. Paper doses are placed on the tongue, where the drug is rapidly absorbed. Tablets or capsules are swallowed. LSD is not absorbed through dry skin. There are many street names including acid, blotter, dots, tabs, tickets, trips and many others related to the particular des on the paper dosage forms.
LSD may be detected in paper doses after extracting the drug into methanol. The extract is spotted onto filter paper, dried and examined under ultraviolet light nm ; LSD gives a strong blue fluorescence. Commercial immunoassays are available for the detection of LSD in urine at concentrations at or above 0.
Many ergot alkaloids can interfere with LSD analysis, e. LSD degrades readily, particularly in biological specimens, unless protected from light and elevated temperatures; it may also bind to glass containers in acidic solutions. Because LSD is so potent , there is no need for it to be adulterated.
Laboratories rarely encounter the drug as a powder so rarely measure purity. As mentioned earlier, the drug decomposes in light and at high temperatures. Drugs and the darknet: perspectives for enforcement, research and policy November Lysergide LSD drug profile May Clark, C.
Freedman, D. Klette, K. Schneider, S. Shulgin, A. Sklerov, J. Home Publications Drug profiles. Since early , the COVID pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the way we live, with European countries having to introduce unprecedented measures to protect public health. As with all areas of life, drug consumption, related harms and drug markets have been impacted, as have the services The Trends and Developments report presents a top-level overview of the drug phenomenon in Europe, covering drug supply, use and public health problems as well as drug policy and responses.
This t report prepared by the EMCDDA and Europol considers the latest findings from international research, fresh empirical data, and operational information and intelligence in order to illuminate how darknet markets function and how they relate to criminal behaviour. The publication adopts an Presented in a standardised way, each profile briefly gives the chemistry, pharmacology, synthesis and precursors of each substance, as well as analysis, physical form e.Why was lsd made
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LSD: a new treatment emerging from the past